Envy… and Gratitude

This is an excerpt to this video entitled, “Introduction to Kleinian Theory”.

I. Rejection of Death Instinct

  • Klein rejects Freud’s Death Instinct theory (20-25)
    • Reasons for rejecting the theory (25)
      • Klein argues sufficient ego exists at birth to experience anxiety (20)
      • She emphasizes the role of primitive defense mechanisms and object relations (20)

II. Splitting and the Paranoid-Schizoid Position

  • Splitting is necessary for the developing mind (40)
    • Ideal breast vs. persecutory breast (41)
    • Super ego identified with the bad breast (42)
    • Conscience identified with the good breast (42)
  • Two ways to protect the good from the bad (43)
    • Projection (paranoia) (43)
    • Idealization (depletion of self) (43)
  • The paranoid-schizoid position (44)
    • Term “schizoid” refers to splitting, not schizoid personality (44)
    • Splitting of both object and ego (44)
  • Persecutory object can be internal or external (45)

III. Passion and the Paranoid-Schizoid Position

  • Passion belongs to the paranoid-schizoid position (46)
  • Love, commitment, and ideals are formed here (46)
  • The sacred resides in the paranoid-schizoid position (46-47)
    • Examples: religious reverence, secular sacred (life of a child, democracy) (46-47)

IV. Dialectical Thinking

  • Mental health as an oscillation between paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions (48)
  • Fairbairn’s concept of mental health (48)
  • Author’s concept of a transitional area (48)

V. Envy

  • Envy is a two-body phenomenon (distinguished from jealousy) (49)
  • Envy can lead to destructive behavior (spoiling) (50)
  • Envy in patients can lead to backlash against progress (50-51)
  • Envy of the analyst (52)
    • Can be experienced as a defense against unconscious destructive wishes (Kernberg) (52)
    • Can be an attempt to resume a development process (Kohut) (52)
  • The envious super ego (53)
  • Projection of Envy (53)
  • Defenses against Envy (53-54)
    • Spoiling
    • Devaluing
    • Rigid idealization
    • Projection of Envy

VI. Idealization

  • Kernberg vs. Kohut on Idealization (54-55)
    • Kernberg: defense against destructive impulses (54)
    • Kohut: attempt to resume a development process (54)

VII. Countertransference

  • Winnicott on hate in the countertransference (55)
    • Some patients distrust analyst’s goodness and need to experience their hate (55)

VIII. Analyst’s Bias

  • Analysts may have a bias towards linking or separating (56)
  • Importance of analyst’s development of a “bisexual orientation” (56)

IX. Attacks on Linking

  • Beon describes attacks on linking in schizophrenia (56)

X. Use of Analyst as Container

  • Patients may use the analyst as a container for bad objects (56-57)
  • Three possible responses of the analyst (57)
    • Unaffected (blocks process) (57)
    • Rejects the bad object (patient sees analyst as persecutory) (57)
    • Contains the bad object (leads to relief and Envy) (57)
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