These are summarized findings obtained from this 2008 study by Jennings et. al. entitled Psychotherapy expertise in Singapore: A qualitative investigation. The researcher cited Singapore as a good place for studying psychotherapy due to it cultural diversity relative to its geographical size.
In this study, a group of 9 therapists and/or counselors were selected from a pool based on being seconded by colleagues as “master therapists”. The interviews were conducted with structured questions, and video-taped. These were later analyzed using grounded theory.
Results of the Study
Here are the viewpoints of the master therapists.
Needed personal characteristics that therapists should have:
- Empathic : Master therapists spoke of possessing a great empathy for their clients. As one master therapist explained, once the client felt genuinely understood and accepted in whatever circumstances, true change and healing began.
- Non-judgmental: This trait can produce a sense of safety for clients.
- Respectful: The master therapists were mindful of their impact on clients and the importance of working with clients in a respectful manner. Respect for clients, whoever they are and whatever their issues may be, was a pervasive theme among these master therapists.
Needed developmental influences that therapists should have are:
- Experience: The interviewees described a journey, explaining the many elements that created and influenced their path to expertise. When exploring elements of expertise, experience was mentioned frequently as an important factor. One master therapist made the point that there were no quick developmental influences and no guarantee that experience alone leads to expertise.
- Self-awareness: The master therapists spoke of how their self-awareness has served them well when conducting therapy. One master described it as recognizing your internal processes when working with clients and being able to be a participant/ observer of interactions with clients.
- Humility. The master therapists recognized humility as another important component in the development of expertise. Recognizing one’s limits may serve as a source of motivation and growth. One master therapist described the importance of the humbling process of recognizing and learning from one’s mistakes.
- Self-doubt: Despite their experience and reputation, some of the master therapists addressed another issue related to the development of expertise* periodic self-doubt*and how this feeling motivated them to keep growing their clinical skills.
Therapists’ approach to practice:
- Balance between support and challenge: Many of the master therapists spoke of the importance of maintaining a balance between support and challenge when working with clients.
- Flexible therapeutic stance. The master therapists described a flexible approach in their work with Psychotherapy clients. If client variables required them to adapt their style, they did. One theory does not fit all.
- Empowerment/strength-based approach: A number of master therapists spoke about their clients’ internal resources and how the therapist’s task was to reinforce these strengths and bring them to bear in dealing with the problem at hand.
- Primacy of the therapeutic alliance: Many of the master therapists acknowledged the importance of the therapeutic relationship. The impact of the relationship varied from a necessary condition in the therapeutic process to the relationship being the actual source of healing.
- Comfortable addressing spirituality: Beyond observance of any particular religion, many master therapists spoke of a broad personal spiritual mind-set, which primarily functioned as a backdrop when working with clients but also included some therapists privately praying for clients.
- Embraces working within a multicultural context: A number of master therapists spoke of the importance of cultural awareness in their work and the challenges of adapting Western therapeutic approaches to Eastern values and systems.
On on-going professional growth:
- Professional development practices: Professional development, a key factor in developing and maintaining expertise, was not limited to conferences, literature, or textbooks. One master therapist believed that therapists should extend beyond their areas of practice to broaden development.
- Benefits of teaching/training others: Now highly regarded and seasoned, the master therapists have much to offer other therapists. Many of the master therapists viewed teaching and training as an opportunity to hone their own skills and to reflect upon their practice.
- Challenges to professional development in Singapore. During the interviews, master therapists identified several ‘‘professional growth edges’’ in the Singapore psychotherapy profession. For instance, a training need recognized by several therapists was that of basic counseling skills. One master therapist explained that basic counseling skills are not natural for many Singaporean trainees.
Comments on the Study and it’s Results
As a Singaporean therapist with training in Austria, it appears that what the master therapists highlight regarding personal characteristics, development and education of therapists are not so different in Singapore than in Europe.
There is one difference that stands out for me, and that is of the need of the Singapore-based therapist to address spirituality. Although it is also important in Europe, the emphasis in this article gives me the impression that is more important and challenging in Singapore.
What is somewhat disappointing about the results is that (and it was articulate also in the article) is that the Master therapists shared very little of their own emotional experiences. The researchers attributed it to the cultural background of the therapist. As someone doing qualitative research myself, I am of the opinion the it is the job of the researchers to lead the subjects to provide this information.
It could be that the shortfall in this study is the interviewers own discomfort in checking with the interviewees on more personal levels.
As a whole, I do agree that Singapore is good ground for psychotherapy research.
Jennings, L., D’Rozario, V., Goh, M., Sovereign, A., Brogger, M., & Skovholt, T. (2008). Psychotherapy expertise in Singapore: A qualitative investigation. Psychotherapy research, 18(5), 508-522.