Alienation: Philosophical Roots and Therapeutic Implications for the Gestalt Therapist

In today’s fast-paced and interconnected world, many of us find ourselves grappling with feelings of disconnection and fragmentation. From the pressures of work and social media to the demands of everyday life, it’s easy to lose sight of our true selves amidst the chaos of white noise. Gestalt Therapy offers frameworks and approaches that offer hope and guidance for reclaiming our sense of wholeness which is more relevant in our post-pandemic world than ever.

Alienation is a term that resonates deeply with many of us in today’s society. It’s that sense of feeling disconnected from ourselves, from others, and from the world around us.

Europe in the early 20th century, the world was undergoing profound social, political, and intellectual transformations. It was in this context that the philosophies of alienation and Gestalt psychology emerged, offering insights into the human condition and paths towards holistic understanding and healing. This essay delves into the intersection of these two paradigms, examining their philosophical underpinnings, mutual influences, and implications for Gestalt therapy.

The year 1923 marked the publication of Georg Lukács’s seminal work, “History and Class Consciousness,” a text that would deeply resonate with intellectuals of the time, including Fritz Perls. Lukács’s exploration of alienation and totality within the framework of Marxist thought laid the groundwork for understanding societal structures and individual experiences. Concurrently, Gestalt psychology, with its emphasis on holistic perception and meaningful wholes, was gaining prominence in the field of psychology. Perls, influenced by both Lukács and Gestalt psychology, would go on to develop Gestalt therapy, a groundbreaking approach to psychotherapy that integrated philosophical insights with therapeutic practice.

The Roots of Alienation: Lukács’s Dialectical Analysis and Heidegger’s Existential Analysis

At the heart of Lukács’s work lies the concept of alienation, a condition in which individuals become estranged from themselves, their labor, and their social context. Lukács’s dialectical approach to understanding reality emphasizes the interconnectedness of phenomena and the dynamic nature of totality. Drawing from Marxist theory, Lukács critiqued capitalism as a system that commodifies human relationships and reduces individuals to mere objects within a market-driven society. The concept of alienation, therefore, becomes central to the revolutionary critique of capitalism, offering insights into the fragmentation of human experience and the quest for wholeness.

Alienation is linked to concepts of fallenness and inauthenticity that are integral to Heidegger’s existential analysis, portraying how human beings often live without genuine engagement with their true selves or the realities of their existence, instead being led by societal norms and expectations– which are intensified today with the pace of technological development. These themes are essential for understanding Heidegger’s views on the potential for more authentic modes of being, which could be tied into therapeutic practices in Gestalt therapy by focusing on helping individuals recognize and overcome the influences of the ‘They’ to realize more authentic ways of being.

Gestalt Psychology: Perceiving Wholes in a Fragmented World

In parallel to Lukács’s exploration of alienation, Gestalt psychologists were investigating the nature of perception and consciousness. Rejecting the atomistic approach of structuralism, Gestalt psychologists argued that perception is inherently holistic, with individuals organizing sensory input into meaningful gestalts or wholes. The figure/background principle, central to Gestalt theory, highlights the dynamic interplay between elements and the contextual nature of perception. Gestalt psychology thus provides a framework for understanding how individuals perceive and experience the world as integrated wholes rather than fragmented parts.

Integration of Philosophies: Creative Indifference in Gestalt Therapy

By exploring the dynamic interactions between figure and ground, clients gain insight into their patterns of behaviour and the underlying causes of their distress. Through experiential therapeutic sessions, Gestalt therapy aims to facilitate the integration of fragmented aspects of the self, and the integration of the self in the environment, allowing for wholeness that reaches beyond the individual.


The potential of Gestalt therapy to reconcile the needs of individuals and society stems from its philosophical underpinnings, particularly the concept of creative indifference attributed to Salomo Friedlaender. This philosophy embraces the coexistence of polarities, allowing for a balanced approach that honors both the autonomy of the individual and the interconnectedness of society. Through creative indifference, Gestalt therapy offers a framework for navigating the tensions between personal growth and social responsibility, fostering a holistic understanding of human experience and facilitating healing on both individual and collective levels.

Therapeutic Implications: Navigating the Journey Towards Wholeness


Gestalt therapy stands out as a potent tool in resolving the tension between individual needs and societal expectations while maintaining ethical balance. At its core lies the philosophy of creative indifference, attributed to Salomo Friedlaender, which embraces the coexistence of polarities. This approach allows Gestalt therapy to navigate the complexities of human experience, addressing both the individual’s quest for autonomy and the interconnectedness of society.

In the therapeutic context, Gestalt therapy provides a safe and nurturing environment for individuals to explore their experiences of alienation and disconnection. Through guided exploration and experiential techniques, clients are encouraged to delve into their feelings of estrangement from themselves and others. By fostering heightened awareness and facilitating the integration of fragmented aspects of the self, Gestalt therapy guides clients towards a deeper sense of authenticity and wholeness.

Today, in a world increasingly characterized by social isolation and digital connectivity, the issue of alienation has taken on heightened significance. The pervasive influence of the internet and social media has paradoxically amplified feelings of isolation while fostering a culture of superficial connections. Moreover, the rapid advancement of technology raises concerns about the potential for further alienation as humans become increasingly reliant on digital interfaces for communication and interaction.

In this context, the principles of Gestalt therapy offer a timely and relevant framework for addressing the challenges of alienation in contemporary society. By providing individuals with the tools to reconnect with their authentic selves and fostering a sense of integration with society, Gestalt therapy offers a pathway towards healing and wholeness. Therapists equipped with the philosophy and techniques of Gestalt therapy are uniquely positioned to guide individuals through the process of confronting and transcending their experiences of alienation, ultimately facilitating a deeper sense of connection and belonging in the world.

References:

Bocian, B. (2015). Fritz Perls in Berlin 1893-1933: Expressionism Psychoanalysis Judaism. EHP-Verlag Andreas Kohlhage.

Chew-Helbig, N. (2022). Understanding Salomo Friedlaender’s Creative Indifference: A Psychotherapy Case-Study. Geštalt Zbornik9, 5-15.

Heidegger, M. (2010). Being and time. Suny Press.

Naranjo, C. (2004). Gestalt therapy. The Attitude and Practice of an Atheoretical Experientalism.

The Psychotherapeutic Journey Towards a Mature Psyche: Melanie Klein’s Psychoanalytic Theory

Melanie Klein emphasises the role of unconscious defence mechanisms in shaping our perceptions of the world and ourselves. This essay will delve into the core tenets of Klein’s theory, focusing on the two primary phases of psychoanalytic development: the paranoid-schizoid position and the depressive reparative position. We will explore the characteristics of each phase, the defense mechanisms employed, and how the analyst facilitates the transition towards a more mature psyche.

The Paranoid-Schizoid Position: A World in Black and White

The initial phase of psychoanalytic development according to Klein is the paranoid-schizoid position (PS). This stage, encompassing the first few months of life, is characterized by an immature ego struggling to make sense of overwhelming emotions and fragmented sensory experiences. The infant perceives the world in extremes, categorizing everything as either “good” or “bad.” The good experiences are associated with the gratifying breast, which provides sustenance and comfort. Conversely, frustrating experiences, such as hunger or discomfort, are perceived as emanating from a bad breast.

This splitting defense mechanism serves as a psychological safeguard for the infant. By dividing the world into good and bad objects, the infant can manage the intense anxiety associated with negative emotions. However, this splitting also hinders the development of a more nuanced understanding of reality. People who remain fixated in the paranoid-schizoid position may exhibit black and white thinking, struggling to see the complexities of human relationships and situations.

Another prominent defense mechanism employed during the PS position is projection. The infant projects its negative feelings, such as rage and frustration, onto external objects, often the primary caregiver. This can lead to a distorted perception of the caregiver as a malevolent force, fueling feelings of paranoia and mistrust.

The Depressive Reparative Position: Towards a More Realistic View

As the infant matures and develops more sophisticated cognitive abilities, it gradually transitions into the depressive reparative position (DR). This phase, typically emerging around the end of the first year, is marked by a shift towards a more realistic view of the world. The infant begins to recognize that the caregiver is not simply a good or bad object but a whole person capable of offering both love and frustration.

This newfound understanding brings with it a wave of depressive anxieties. The infant grapples with the fear of having damaged or destroyed the good object through its projected aggression. To alleviate this anxiety, the infant employs the defense mechanism of reparation. Through reparation, the infant attempts to undo the harm it imagines it has caused to the loved object. This might manifest in behaviors like clinging or increased attentiveness to the caregiver.

The DR position also paves the way for the development of empathy and compassion. The infant starts to recognize the caregiver’s own feelings and experiences, marking a significant step towards emotional maturity.

The Role of the Analyst in Facilitating Development

The psychoanalyst plays a crucial role in supporting the patient’s journey through these developmental phases. By providing a safe and non-judgmental space, the analyst allows the patient to explore their unconscious fantasies and anxieties. Through techniques like free association and dream analysis, the analyst helps the patient unearth the roots of their emotional conflicts, often stemming from early childhood experiences.

As the patient confronts these unconscious thoughts and feelings, the analyst acts as a containing object. The analyst’s consistent and supportive presence helps the patient manage the overwhelming emotions that may arise during this process. By fostering a therapeutic alliance, the analyst creates a secure space where the patient can experiment with new ways of relating to themselves and others.

The Importance of Klein’s Theory

Klein’s theory of psychoanalytic development offers valuable insights into the complexities of human behavior. Her emphasis on unconscious defense mechanisms provides a framework for understanding how our early experiences shape our perceptions and emotional responses. By recognizing the influence of the paranoid-schizoid and depressive reparative positions, we can gain a deeper appreciation for the challenges and triumphs encountered on the path towards emotional maturity, which is the process of long term psychotherapy.

Limitations and Further Considerations

While Klein’s theory has been influential in the field of psychoanalysis, it is important to acknowledge its limitations. Gestalt therapy expands on the concept of development and maturity as a therapeutic path by considering the environment and how the infant creatively adjusts to that environment. Gestalt therapy also provides where analysis leaves behind, which is the facilitation of the therapeutic process, by which the practitioner brings the client beyond analysis towards experiencing the state of being in the paranoid-schizoid and depressive reparative positions during the therapy hour.

Despite these limitations, Klein’s work remains a valuable contribution to our understanding of early development and the unconscious mind, providing the foundation for psychotherapy. Her theory continues to inspire contemporary psychoanalytic thought and practice, and is also a wonderful resources for the gestalt therapist.

Reference:

Wilhelm Reich’s Influence on Gestalt Therapy

Wilhelm Reich was a prominent figure in the early development of psychoanalytic techniques, particularly noted for his integration of body movements and psychological experiences, as well as his focus on sexual liberation and character analysis. Reich’s work was characterized by its active and engaging approach during analysis sessions, which contrasted with the more traditional, passive “abstinent” psychoanalytic methods. He was deeply interested in the link between physical posture and psychological states, a pioneering approach that heavily influenced Fritz Perls.

Reich’s methods, which included his “character analysis” and later the development of vegetotherapy, emphasized the bodily expressions of psychological resistances—a concept that deeply resonated with Perls. During his training analysis with Reich, Perls experienced a dynamic and contact-prone style of psychoanalysis that highlighted the importance of real-life experiences and emotional honesty in therapeutic settings.

“A human being has a right to be right, to have an opinion, without being criticized for it or having to struggle for recognition.”

— Spurgeon-English, recalling Reich’s approach.

Reich’s Influences from Body Movement Studies

Reich was not the first to consider the connection between body and psychological states, but he was among the most influential in the psychoanalytic community. His thoughts were preceded and inspired by the work of others like Otto Fenichel and Sandor Ferenczi, who had also explored how physical expressions and resistances could mirror psychological ones. Ferenczi, for example, experimented with techniques that encouraged emotional expression through body movements, which influenced Reich’s therapeutic approach.

Differences Between Perls and Reich

While Fritz Perls drew heavily on Reich’s theories and methods, particularly in terms of focusing on the here-and-now and the bodily expressions of psychological states, he diverged in his conceptualization of the therapeutic process. Perls developed Gestalt therapy, which emphasized awareness, the holistic aspect of the self, and the environment interacting as parts of a greater whole. This approach shifted somewhat from Reich’s more singular focus on sexual and character dynamics.

Key Importance for Perls: For Fritz Perls, the key lay in awareness and the present moment, which were essential in helping clients to understand and resolve their issues. His therapy style focused less on the analyst’s interpretation and more on the client’s current experiences and perceptions.

Wilhelm Reich’s pioneering work on the integration of body and psychological processes heavily influenced Fritz Perls and the development of Gestalt therapy. Although inspired by Reich, Perls adapted and evolved these concepts to form a new therapeutic approach that emphasized holistic integration and present awareness, marking a significant evolution in psychotherapeutic practices.

Early Conceptualisation of Gestalt Therapy’s Understanding of Introjection

Gestalt therapy, a distinctive form of psychotherapy, developed by Lore and Fritz Perls, offers a nuanced approach to understanding and facilitating human growth and development. This method emerged from the Perls’ personal and professional experiences, as well as the influence of their peers and the cultural environment surrounding them.

In the early stages of their exploration, Lore Perls focused on what might seem mundane—infant feeding and weaning practices. However, her observations provided profound insights into human behavior and psychology. She noted that the manner in which food is introduced to infants—often hurried and without allowing the child to “chew”—parallels how people are introduced to new knowledge and experiences. Lore Perls identified this rushed process as “introjection,” where individuals absorb information without fully processing it, a concept that would become central to Gestalt therapy.

Expanding on this idea, Lore argued that true understanding and learning require time and patience, akin to the physical act of chewing. This metaphor highlighted the importance of fully engaging with and processing new information, rather than passively accepting it. In her 1939 lecture “Child Raising and Peace,” she further discussed the role of aggression in creative change, warning against the suppression of aggressive impulses as it could lead to intellectual inhibition and a lack of critical thinking.

Her insights were complemented by Fritz Perls’ contributions. At the 1936 International Psychoanalytic Congress, Fritz presented a lecture on “Oral Resistances,” where he explored children’s natural resistance to forced feeding. He argued that such resistance is not limited to eating but can extend to intellectual matters as well. Fritz observed that most people conform to the intellectual “diet” they are allowed, while only a few question and choose what truly resonates with them.

These ideas were further elaborated in Fritz Perls’ book “Ego, Hunger and Aggression,” co-written with Lore during their exile in South Africa. The book critiqued traditional psychoanalytic techniques, emphasizing the need for a self-directed assimilation of experiences—a stark contrast to the often authoritarian approach observed in conventional psychoanalysis. Fritz criticized these methods for projecting predetermined notions onto patients, which he termed “intropress,” borrowing from the concepts discussed by Sándor Ferenczi, another influential psychoanalyst who advocated for considering psychoanalytic interpretations as mere suggestions.

Gestalt therapy, thus, encourages individuals to actively engage with their experiences and emotions in the present moment. It promotes awareness and personal responsibility, enabling individuals to navigate their own psychological landscapes independently. This approach stands in contrast to the intellectual passivity and reliance on authority that the Perls critiqued, particularly within the rigid educational and political systems of their time.

By integrating these psychological insights with broader socio-political observations, the Perls developed Gestalt therapy not just as a therapeutic method, but as a form of intellectual and emotional liberation, advocating for a more mindful, autonomous, and critically engaged way of living and learning.

References

Bocian, B. (2015). Fritz Perls in Berlin 1893-1933: Expressionism Psychoanalysis Judaism. EHP-Verlag Andreas Kohlhage.

Perls, L. (1997). Der Weg zur Gestalttherapie. Lore Perls im Gespräch mit Daniel Rosenblatt. Wuppertal

Gestalt Therapy: A Tapestry Woven from Psychoanalysis, Gestalt Psychology, and Field Theory

This passage explores the intellectual milieu of Frankfurt in the 1920s, highlighting the cross-pollination of ideas that significantly influenced the development of Gestalt therapy by Fritz Perls. Bocian’s book “Fritz Perls in Berlin” is a great resource for those who wish to fully grasp the theoretical foundations of Gestal therapy.

A Fertile Ground for Interdisciplinary Exchange

The Frankfurt Institute for Social Research (IfS) served as a central hub for intellectual exchange. Here, renowned figures like Gestalt psychologists Ademar Gelb and Kurt Goldstein, social philosopher Paul Tillich, and Marxist sociologists all interacted and debated. Both Lore Posner (later Perls) and Fritz Perls were deeply impacted by these thinkers, particularly Goldstein and his emphasis on the organism as a self-regulating whole.

Psychoanalysis and the South West German Working Group

In 1926, the South West German Working Group for Psychoanalysis was established. Key members like Karl Landauer and Erich Fromm fostered a space for critical engagement with psychoanalysis. Lore Perls underwent training analysis with Clara Happel, a member of the group, and later with Landauer, who Perls greatly respected. The Frankfurt Psychoanalytic Institute (FPI), founded in 1929, further solidified Frankfurt’s position as a center for psychoanalytic thought. Perls and Lore Posner attended lectures by prominent psychoanalysts like Anna Freud and Siegfried Bernfeld at the FPI.

Bridging the Gap Between Psychoanalysis and Gestalt Psychology

While both psychoanalysis and Gestalt psychology explored the human mind, they did so from distinct perspectives. Psychoanalysis focused on the unconscious mind and the role of past experiences, whereas Gestalt psychology emphasized present experience and the formation of meaningful wholes. However, there were attempts to bridge this gap.

  • Siegfried Bernfeld’s work in 1934 explored the relationship between these two schools of thought, highlighting the potential for Gestalt psychology’s holistic view of perception to inform psychoanalytic theory.
  • Psychoanalysts like Alfred Adler and Imre Hermann (Ferenczi’s student) saw connections between their work and Gestalt psychology. Adler’s individual psychology, whichwas already establishe, like Gestalt therapy, viewed humans as integrated wholes within social contexts.

  • Wilhelm Reich and Fritz Perls, who had both studied under Paul Schilder (who reviewed Kurt Koffka), believed Gestalt psychology could contribute to refining psychoanalytic concepts. Perls went on to be in analysis with Reich after having been with Karen Horney.
  • Georg Gero, who also was in analysis with Reich, reviewed and studied the work of Kurt Lewin (theory of the field) and Kurt Lewin’s colleague, Bluma Zeigarnik (unfinished business).
  • Thomas French introduced the concept of “insight” into psychoanalysis, which he had taken over from Wolfgang Köhler, attempting to create a synthesis of psychoanalysis and Lewin’s field theory.
  • Siegmund Fuchs (S.H. Foulkes) who worked with Perls as assistant to Goldstein employed Gestalt and Field theory to groups.
  • George Deveraux drew on gestalt psychology to explain how confrontation stimulate rudimentaty gestalts, while interpretation uncover repressed elements.
  • Wolfgang Hochheimer studied under Goldstein and Gelb published “on the analysis of the therapeutic field, investigating the application of analytical field theory. He acknowledged how the therapist and client’s respective “life fields” overlap has therapeutic significance.

Shared Interests and the Rise of Gestalt Therapy

Fritz Perls, influenced by his exposure to both psychoanalysis and Gestalt psychology, sought to create a synthesis. He was likely further drawn to this path due to his background in Mynona’s polarity philosophy, which emphasized the interplay of opposing forces.

  • Later developments such as the work of René Spitz (a friend of Kurt Lewin who explored Zeigarnik’s unfinished business and their connection to dreams) and the contextualist psychoanalysts further demonstrate the ongoing dialogue between Gestalt therapy and psychoanalysis. Spit developed a concept called “action cycles” that are similar to Gestalt Therapy’s “contact cycle”.
  • This group of psychoanalysts sought to integrate Gestalt psychology and field theory into their practice, focussing attention to the world beyond the client’s inner psyche, the environment (the field) that reciprocates its influences.

Conclusion

Even before Gestalt psychology became a formalized school of thought, Freud, particularly in his Interpretation of Dreams, began to employ concepts that resonated with a Gestalt understanding of the mind. Perls and other Gestalt therapists would later draw on these elements as evidence of psychoanalysis’ latent acknowledgment of the role of wholes and patterns in mental life.

The intellectual ferment of Frankfurt in the 1920s provided a fertile ground for the birth of Gestalt therapy. Perls, drawing inspiration from psychoanalysis, Gestalt psychology, and other influences, wove these diverse threads into a unique therapeutic approach that emphasized present experience, self-awareness, and the organism’s capacity for self-regulation and growth.

Erving Polster (1922-2024): Gestalt Therapy

I’m posting this marking the passing of Erving Polster at 102 last week.

According to the video, Erving Polster, then at 98-years of age, talks about his life and work in Gestalt therapy. The interview is conducted by Talia, who has known Erving for 40 years.

Erving talks about his early experience with Gestalt therapy when he attended a workshop led by Fritz Perls, the founder of Gestalt therapy. He was impressed by Perls’ charisma and the simplicity and power of Gestalt therapy. Erving had previously been interested in making psychotherapy more accessible to the public, and he thought Gestalt therapy could be a way to achieve this.

Erving describes his work in the 1960s, where he tried to bring Gestalt therapy into everyday life by running therapy sessions in coffee houses. People would come and discuss themes of life, such as hippies and policemen, and act out conversations related to these themes. Erving found this to be a more communal and engaging way to do therapy.

Erving also talks about the importance of enchantment in therapy. He believes that people are often drawn to therapy because of a sense of enchantment with the mystery of life and the possibility of new experiences. However, this enchantment is often overlooked in traditional therapy approaches.

Erving reflects on his life and says that he is proud of having found a way to work that is hospitable to his skills. He talks about his ability to tune into what is going on with another person and his interest in the world around him. Even though he is old, Erving says that he still feels attended to and interested in life.

Here are some points that Erving made:

  • Gestalt Therapy and Fritz Perls: Erving became interested in Gestalt therapy after attending a workshop led by Fritz Perls, the founder of Gestalt therapy. He was impressed by Perls’ charisma and the simplicity and power of Gestalt therapy. Perls’ ideas about focusing on the present moment and the client’s experience resonated with Erving’s own beliefs about the importance of authenticity and connection in therapy.
  • Transforming therapy into a communal event: Erving believed that psychotherapy should be more than just one-on-one sessions in a therapist’s office. He envisioned therapy as a communal event that could help people explore life’s themes in a more engaging and supportive setting. In the 1960s, he experimented with running Gestalt therapy groups in coffee houses. People would come and discuss themes of life, such as hippies and policemen, and act out conversations related to these themes. Erving found this to be a more engaging way to do therapy than the traditional approach.
  • Focus on the present moment: Gestalt therapy emphasizes the importance of focusing on the present moment rather than dwelling on the past or future. Erving believed that people often get stuck in unhelpful patterns of thinking and behavior by focusing on what has already happened or what might happen in the future. By focusing on the present moment, people can become more aware of their thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and this can lead to greater self-awareness and growth.
  • Client-centered approach: Gestalt therapy is a client-centered approach to therapy, which means that the therapist follows the client’s lead and helps them explore their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences. The therapist does not provide advice or direction, but rather creates a safe and supportive space for the client to explore themselves.
  • Holistic approach: Gestalt therapy takes a holistic approach to therapy, considering the person’s mind, body, and spirit. Erving believed that it is important to address all aspects of a person’s experience in order to help them grow and change.

Here is a collection of Erving Polster’s books, a couple of which were co-written with his late wife, Miriam:

Erv Polster on YouTube Interview in 2013

Erv Polster on YouTube

Kurt Goldstein’s Influence on Fritz Perls Gestalt Therapy

Fritz Perls’ arrival in Frankfurt during 1926-1927 marked a pivotal point in his career. At Frankfurt University, a renowned center for social sciences in Germany, Gestalt psychology held significant influence. Lore Perls earned her doctorate at this institution, where prominent figures such as Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Goldstein shaped the intellectual landscape.

Goldstein, director of the Neurological Institute, based his research on war-related brain injuries. Perls served briefly as an assistant within Goldstein’s research group. Renowned for his holistic and organismic approach, Goldstein conceptualized neuronal function as an integrated network. He was among the physicians advocating for a multidisciplinary psychosomatic perspective on human suffering, urging the medical profession to view individuals as integrated wholes. Goldstein criticized both somatic medicine and psychoanalysis for their failure to incorporate the organism’s environment and their reliance on abstractions of reality rather than the integrated mind-body experience.

Perls embraced Goldstein’s organismic theory, which resonated with his professional background and his adoption of contextual, relational thinking influenced by Friedlander. This foundation shaped Perls’ subsequent contributions to the development of Gestalt therapy.

Kurt Goldstein’s ideas on health and self-realization deeply impacted Perls’ personal and professional development.

  • Health as Self-Actualization: For Goldstein, health wasn’t a fixed state but rather the ability of an individual to live authentically and fulfill their potential. As Harrington (2002) explains, health hinges on “the degree to which individual human beings can realize their nature, in other words, that which is important for their lives” (p. 277).
  • Therapy for a Meaningful Life: Goldstein believed therapy shouldn’t just analyze problems; it should empower individuals. The goal, as quoted in Harrington (2002, p. 277), is “a transformation of the patient’s personality” that allows them to “make the right choice” – a choice that aligns with their true nature and makes life feel worthwhile again.
  • Navigating Challenges: A healthy organism actively shapes its environment and experiences clashes, disruptions, and crises. Goldstein emphasizes the importance of courage in facing these challenges, making decisions, and overcoming difficulties.
  • Perls’ Personal Connection: Perls throughout his life exemplified courage in the face of fear. He might have found inspiration in a quote by Kierkegaard, relayed by Goldstein: “To dare is to lose one’s footing momentarily. Not to dare is to lose oneself” (in Harrington, 2002, p. 286).

References:

Harrington, Anne. (2002). Die Suche nach Ganzheit. Die Geschichte biologisch-psychologischer Ganzheitslehren: Vom Kaiserreich bis zur New-Age-Bewegung. Hamburg